Hottest fiber IC is ready for high data rate

2022-08-21
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Optical fiber IC is ready for high data rate

the speed of interconnection is still not fast enough. In fact, all networks can say so. The slow response speed of surfing is not only caused by browser delay, but also the problem of network interconnection itself. In short, more and more people watch TV and download videos on the Internet, which further aggravates the burden of the Internet

although the speed of 4G to remove the bending center and connecting block intelligence is faster than before, the return journey of operators has dragged down all these advanced devices. In addition, the cloud computing concept proposed by Google and other companies will also require quite fast networking

however, it is the optical fiber network that solves this urgent problem. In addition, we are embarking on a large-scale update and overhaul of the Internet backbone

most of the long-distance and metropolitan optical networks built from the 1990s to the beginning of the 21st century use 2.488gbps SONET (OC-48) technology. Since then, many systems have been upgraded to 10Gbps (9.95328-gbps SONET or OC-192), and a few systems have been upgraded to a rate of nearly 40Gbps (39.81312gbps SONET or oc-768), which is the peak rate of SONET

these synchronous systems are connected to asynchronous Ethernet, resulting in the demand for interface solutions such as synchronous fiber Ethernet protocol. With the increasing number of faster Ethernet and Internet Protocol (IP) systems and the emergence of all IP 4G wireless networks, SONET has been trying to keep up with this trend

coupled with the demand for speeds above 40Gbps, IP based fast systems suddenly become no longer a luxury, but a necessity. This new system, called optical transmission network (OTN), is now ready in some places and is beginning to expand

otn is better than SONET

OTN is commonly referred to as ITU standard G.709, which is called "digital encapsulation" or "optical channel encapsulation". This network can easily transmit IP traffic, just like SONET and SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy). OTN has the following line rates: the line rate of 2.66gbps (otu1) corresponds to SONET OC-48, the line rate of 10.7/11.09gbps (otu2/2e) corresponds to 10 Gigabit Ethernet or SONET OC-192, and the line rate of 43.01gbps (otu3) corresponds to SONET oc-768 or 40 Gigabit Ethernet. In addition, the line rate of 112gbps (out4) is also defined, corresponding to 100 Gigabit Ethernet. In short, OTN networks are gradually replacing sonet/sdh in most long-distance and metropolitan networks

the cs6041 optical transmission processor and forward error correction (FEC) ic of Cortina systems are devices that support OTN networks (Figure 1). This device can transparently transmit 10Gbps and 40Gbps clients, and aggregate and disaggregate 10Gbps clients to 40Gbps. The device integrates a 40g Ethernet media access controller (MAC), which can monitor 40ge clients and map them to OTN networks. At the same time, it is compatible with the latest G.709 standard and can map clients with various bit rates to OTN. In addition, the device also has four integrated jitter attenuation and elimination phase locked loops (PLLs) and four 10g multi rate (otl/stl/xlaui) serial interfaces, so that the single chip/single card design can be used in cfp/qfsp to cfp/300 pin MSA transponder applications

Figure 1: the 40Gbps, 300 pin optical fiber module of Cortina systems cs6041 is used in a 40Gbps multiplexer/repeater

another expanding optical network technology is the ubiquitous Ethernet. The latest IEEE standard 802.3ba stipulates that 40Gbps and 100gbps optical network technology is used for local area network (LAN), data center and long-distance backbone. It is expected that OTN network will be used for most interconnection backbones, while Ethernet is mainly used for LAN, data center and some metropolitan areas

according to the definition of optical standards, the next step is the final deployment. This depends on the availability of hardware used to implement the scheme. This kind of hardware is a new product and expensive. However, with the passage of time, large-scale applications may gradually reduce costs

dp-qpsk modulation scheme for optical fiber

at present, it is generally recognized that the technology for OTN is a modulation scheme called dual polarization orthogonal phase shift keying (dp-qpsk). The technology adopts orthogonal polarized light and two bit coding of each symbol in QPSK, and the data rate can reach 100gbps, which is four times the line baud rate of 25gbps to 28gbps

dp-qpsk technology designed for current rate requirements also helps to solve the inherent fiber defects in most available field fibers. Specifically, this technology helps to overcome the dispersion and polarization mode dispersion problems commonly existing in the installed optical fiber substrate. Chips and optical modules are not available until now. In fact, the multi-source agreement (MSA) organization has begun to define the dp-qpsk standard module, which will be available in 2012

for Ethernet, the industry seems to have been aiming at 10% of the 802.3ba standard × A consensus was reached on 10Gbps interface. This interface uses 10 single-mode optical fibers to transmit 10Gbps signals, with a transmission range of up to 2km. The standard MSA module defined by 10x10msa alliance has just begun to be supplied, and the module with a transmission range of 10km is under development. Various 40Gbps versions have also been launched

the mobile backbone is also being upgraded with optical fiber Ethernet. The adopted technology is carrier grade Ethernet with 10Gbps hardware, which can be upgraded to 40Gbps or 100gbps as needed

other optical networking technologies such as passive optical networking (PON) are slowly replacing the standard coaxial cable in some cable TV systems. Due to the increasingly frequent use of video and the urgent need for speed, the standard hybrid fiber coax (HFC) that has been ready will be used to the limit

therefore, Gigabit PON (GPON) and Ethernet PON (EPON) in the United States are trying to enter the wired system. In addition, the introduction of the cable service interface data specification (DOCSIS) standard, which stipulates the Ethernet PON, also helps to achieve this goal

in this regard, Cortina systems developed cs8032 single chip optical network unit (ONU), which integrates a 500MHz processor and embedded memory (Figure 2). It supports IEEE service interoperability EPON (siep Jinan testing machine factory ring stiffness testing machine on) standard and IEEE 802.3az energy efficient Ethernet standard

Figure 2: Cortina systems' cs8032 ONU is integrated into a home gateway unit for EPON FTTH connection.

it can realize VoIP services and support four Ethernet channels.

the hardware market is expected to rebound.

after years of recession, the optical fiber hardware market has grown again, mainly thanks to a large number of network upgrades. Most market research companies have always been unconventional in their development process from imitation to independent renovation, and they expect that the optical fiber hardware business will grow by at least single digits in the next few years. According to TeleGeography, an international telecommunications market research company, since the utilization rate of buried optical fiber cables in the United States is less than 50%, the growth potential of the optical fiber hardware market is very large

in a recent survey report of infonetics research, 74% of respondents said they planned to switch to OTN in their core network. Among the operators surveyed, 71% said that they had deployed OTN networks in their core networks or metropolitan areas by the end of 2011. Infonetics predicts that by 2014, 40Gbps and 100gbps OTN networks will cover more than 50% of metropolitan areas

other market research companies that track fiber-optic hardware also expect growth in this market. Ovum predicts that the growth level of this market in 2011 will be 7% higher than that of last year. Dell 'Oro predicts that the first quarter of 2011 will increase by 10% over the same period last year. The company also predicts that in the next five years, the deployment of mobile backbone will see a blowout growth of 0% in the overall adjustment of non-ferrous metal prices, and the total sales of global optical fiber transmission equipment will increase by US $17.3 billion over the same period. The company also expects that sonet/sdh revenue will continue to decline, and the related 40Gbps and 100gbps devices will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 40%

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